Discussion Notes

Assessing Tax Expenditure Reporting in G20 and OECD Economies

and | 6 November 2018
Discussion Notes, Fiscal | Tags: G20, OECD, Tax Expenditures
Governments worldwide pursue public policy objectives through direct spending and tax expenditures (TEs). Interestingly though, and despite their significant impact on government budgets, TEs are opaque and very often not subject to the same level of scrutiny in the budget process as direct spending. This ... continue reading

Energy Tax Expenditures in a Globalized Economy

and | 9 May 2018
Discussion Notes, Fiscal, Trade | Tags: Energy, Tax Competition, Tax Expenditures
Countries around the world have introduced energy taxes to expand revenues, reduce energy consumption and curb greenhouse gas emissions. In that context, they have frequently also implemented tax provisions to lower the energy tax bill for certain industries, households and regions. Tax exemptions and deductions ... continue reading

Central Banks and the Transition to a Low-Carbon Economy

| 22 March 2018
Discussion Notes, Monetary | Tags: Central Banks, Environment, Macroprudential Regulation, Quantitative Easing
Climate change is a fundamental challenge for our societies. Containing it will require a profound and radical transformation of our economic system, including a substantial reorientation of investments toward low-carbon technologies. The question to what extent central banks can and should contribute to this effort ... continue reading

Monetary Policy, Macroprudential Regulation and Inequality

| 12 April 2017
Discussion Notes, Monetary | Tags: Inequality, Interest Rates, Macroprudential Regulation
The 2008 global financial crisis profoundly changed the role of central banks in the economy. First, central banks engaged in strong expansionary monetary policy, using new unconventional tools to boost economic activity. Second, they were key to containing financial instability, which led them to implement ... continue reading

Inheritance Taxation, Corporate Succession and Sustainability

| 6 March 2017
Discussion Notes, Fiscal | Tags: Inheritance Tax, SMEs, Tax Expenditures
Inheritance and estate tax rates are highly heterogeneous across countries. Indeed, the lack of a broadly accepted model of optimal inheritance taxation is reflected in statutory tax rates ranging from 0% in several countries including Australia, Canada and Sweden to 55% in Japan. ... continue reading