Discussion Notes

Central Banks and the Transition to a Low-Carbon Economy

| 22 March 2018
Discussion Notes, Monetary | Tags: Central Banks, Environment, Macroprudential Regulation, Quantitative Easing
Climate change is a fundamental challenge for our societies. Containing it will require a profound and radical transformation of our economic system, including a substantial reorientation of investments toward low-carbon technologies. The question to what extent central banks can and should contribute to this effort ... continue reading

Monetary Policy, Macroprudential Regulation and Inequality

| 12 April 2017
Discussion Notes, Monetary | Tags: Inequality, Interest Rates, Macroprudential Regulation
The 2008 global financial crisis profoundly changed the role of central banks in the economy. First, central banks engaged in strong expansionary monetary policy, using new unconventional tools to boost economic activity. Second, they were key to containing financial instability, which led them to implement ... continue reading

Inheritance Taxation, Corporate Succession and Sustainability

| 6 March 2017
Discussion Notes, Fiscal | Tags: Inheritance Tax, SMEs, Tax Expenditures
Inheritance and estate tax rates are highly heterogeneous across countries. Indeed, the lack of a broadly accepted model of optimal inheritance taxation is reflected in statutory tax rates ranging from 0% in several countries including Australia, Canada and Sweden to 55% in Japan. ... continue reading

Tax Expenditures and Sustainability. An Overview

| 11 November 2016
Discussion Notes, Fiscal | Tags: Employment, Energy, Fossil Fuel Subsidies, Health, Housing, Inequality, Innovation, Patent Boxes, Pensions, Tax Expenditures, VAT
Fiscal policy has significant effects on a broad sustainability agenda covering long-term economic, social and environmental goals. However, whereas a myriad of actors scrutinize taxation as well as direct government spending with regard to their impact on sustainability, a key feature of fiscal policy has ... continue reading

Measuring and Understanding Trade in Service Tasks

, and | 24 May 2016
Discussion Notes, Trade | Tags: Employment, Services Trade
Improvements in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have had differential impacts on the costs of offshoring service tasks. As a result, services with stronger tradability characteristics are at a higher risk of being offshored. This has increased the need for coming up with proper measures ... continue reading