Discussion Notes

Integrating Climate Risks into Credit Risk Assessment: Current Methodologies and the Case of Central Banks Corporate Bond Purchases

| 21 December 2018
Discussion Notes, Monetary | Tags: Climate risk, Credit risk, ECB Corporate Sector Purchase Programme
Climate change, and the transition to a low-carbon economy that can mitigate it, engender significant economic costs. These costs are ultimately borne by households and firms. They affect households’ and firms’ cash flows and wealth, which are key determinants of their credit worthiness. Climate-related costs ... continue reading

Assessing Tax Expenditure Reporting in G20 and OECD Economies

and | 6 November 2018
Discussion Notes, Fiscal | Tags: G20, OECD, Tax Expenditures
Governments worldwide pursue public policy objectives through direct spending and tax expenditures (TEs). Interestingly though, and despite their significant impact on government budgets, TEs are opaque and very often not subject to the same level of scrutiny in the budget process as direct spending. This ... continue reading

Energy Tax Expenditures in a Globalized Economy

and | 9 May 2018
Discussion Notes, Fiscal, Trade | Tags: Energy, Tax Competition, Tax Expenditures
Countries around the world have introduced energy taxes to expand revenues, reduce energy consumption and curb greenhouse gas emissions. In that context, they have frequently also implemented tax provisions to lower the energy tax bill for certain industries, households and regions. Tax exemptions and deductions ... continue reading

Central Banks and the Transition to a Low-Carbon Economy

| 22 March 2018
Discussion Notes, Monetary | Tags: Central Banks, Environment, Macroprudential Regulation, Quantitative Easing
Climate change is a fundamental challenge for our societies. Containing it will require a profound and radical transformation of our economic system, including a substantial reorientation of investments toward low-carbon technologies. The question to what extent central banks can and should contribute to this effort ... continue reading

Monetary Policy, Macroprudential Regulation and Inequality

| 12 April 2017
Discussion Notes, Monetary | Tags: Inequality, Interest Rates, Macroprudential Regulation
The 2008 global financial crisis profoundly changed the role of central banks in the economy. First, central banks engaged in strong expansionary monetary policy, using new unconventional tools to boost economic activity. Second, they were key to containing financial instability, which led them to implement ... continue reading