Policy Briefs and Testimonies

Services Trade Governance in the Digital Economy

| 26 March 2021
Trade, Policy Briefs | Tags: Digitalization, Services Trade, Trade Policy
Services are at the frontier of the transformation to a digital economy. R&D as well as information and communication technology drive the transformation and make services more tradable across borders. The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) governing global services trade was designed in ... continue reading

Disparate Racial Impact: Tax Expenditure Reform Needed

| 23 March 2021
Fiscal, Policy Briefs | Tags: Income Inequality, Tax Expenditures
This policy brief discusses the issues of potential disparate racial impacts of U.S. tax laws regarding government subsidy and incentive programs run through the tax system: tax expenditures. It analyzes the available data, provides normative insights, and describes eight steps to address disparate racial impacts ... continue reading

Tackling Inequality Through Tax Expenditure Reform

and | 24 September 2020
Fiscal, Policy Briefs | Tags: G20, Inequality, Tax Expenditures, VAT
Inequality endangers social cohesion and hampers economic growth, and as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, inequality is set to increase. Hence, the commitment of the Group of Twenty (G20) to address inequality in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is arguably more ... continue reading

Trade Implications of Tax Expenditures

, , , , and | 15 September 2020
Fiscal, Trade, Policy Briefs | Tags: Carbon Tax, Digitalization, Illicit Financial Flows, Tax Competition, Tax Expenditures
International trade and taxation are inextricably linked and have been high-priority issues within the Group of Twenty (G20) agenda. However, the interconnections between international trade and tax expenditures—that is, benefits granted through preferential tax treatment—have been overlooked. This brief calls for a better design of ... continue reading

Shifting Gears: Integrating Climate Risks in Monetary Policy Operations

| 20 January 2020
Monetary, Policy Briefs | Tags: Asset Purchases, Central Banks, Climate Risk, Collateral Framework, Credit Risk
The assets central banks purchase and accept as collateral are at the core of monetary policy implementation. Risk considerations play a crucial role in the selection of these assets: central banks seek to limit their holdings and eligible collateral to assets that minimize their risk ... continue reading